THE ISLAMIC REVOLUTION in 1979 brought a sudden end to the rule of the Pahlavi dynasty, which for fifty years had been identified with the attempt to modernize and Westernize Iran. The Revolution replaced the monarchy with an Islamic republic and a secular state with a quasi-theocracy. It brought new elites to power, altered the pattern of Iran’s foreign relations, and led to the transfer of substantial wealth from private ownership to state control.
Iran (Persian: ايران, /irɒn/↔), officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, formerly known internationally as Persia until 1935, is a country in Central Eurasia, located on the northeastern shore of the Persian Gulf. The name Iran is a cognate of Aryan, and means "Land of the Aryans".
The 18th largest country in the world in terms of area at 1,648,195 km², Iran has a population of over seventy million. It is a country of special geostrategic significance due to its central location in Eurasia. Iran is bordered on the north by Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan. As Iran is a littoral state of the Caspian Sea, which is an inland sea and condominium, Kazakhstan and Russia are also Iran's direct neighbors to the north. Iran is bordered on the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, on the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and on the west by Turkey and Iraq. Tehran is the capital, the country's largest city and the political, cultural, commercial, and industrial center of the nation. Iran is a regional power, and occupies an important position in international energy security and world economy as a result of its large reserves of petroleum and natural gas.
Iran is home to one of the world's oldest continuous major civilizations, with historical and urban settlements dating back to 4000 BC. The Medes unified Iran into a kingdom in 625 BC. They were succeeded by three Iranian dynasties, the Achaemenids, Parthians and Sassanids, which governed Iran for more than 1000 years. After centuries of foreign occupation and short-lived native dynasties, Iran was once again reunified as an independent state in 1501 by the Safavid dynasty — who promoted Shia Islam as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in the history of Islam. Iran had been a monarchy ruled by a Shah, or emperor, almost without interruption from 1501 until the 1979 Iranian Revolution, when Iran officially became an Islamic republic on 1 April 1979.
Iran is a founding member of the UN, NAM, OIC and OPEC. The political system of Iran, based on the 1979 Constitution, comprises several intricately connected governing bodies. The highest state authority is the Supreme Leader. Shia Islam is the official religion and Persian is the official language.
mained much the same. In 1987, nearly a decade
The root and history of Iran, below you will find the history of Iran from the beginning till now
The culture and civilization of some of the people who have lived on the Iranian plateau i.e. the vast land between the river Tigris and Indus, sometimes like in the case of the Elamites, date back to as far as the year 3000 BC.
Sometime in the middle of the second millennium BC the Aryans which constitute a branch of Indo – European people arrived in the Iranian Plateau the migration to Iran, meaning literally the land of Aryans, continued for years.
The Aryan were civilized people who mounted on horse back, where armed with swords and traveled by chariots. Assyrian inscriptions indicate that both the medians and Persians who later ruled in the vast regions of the plateau were Aryan tribes that had entered Iran from the northern side of Caspian Sea.
Another group of the Aryans that entered Iran by crossing the river Oxus
Settled down in the eastern and northeastern Iran founding the legendary Kianids (Kianian) dynasty. The last of them Goshtasb is believed by some scholars of history to be the father of Dariush, the Achaemenian King.
625 BC Dioces founded the Median Empire
606 BC Death of assur Banipal
558 BC The fall of Neinaveh
708 BC End of the median Empire, beginning the Achaemenian.
550 BC The conquest of Ekbatan by Cyrus
540 BC Cyrus proclaimed king of Persia, capture of sardis
539 BC the conquest of Babylon
334BC Alexander’s invasion of Asia
320 BC Alexander burned perspolis, end of the Achaemenian.
250 BC Arsaces I founded the parthian (Persian ) dynasty
53 BC Crassus invaded parthian
36 BC Mark Anthony Parthian expedition
122 AD Persia and Rome make peace
220 Revolt of Ardashir
226 End of Parthian dynasty , beginning of the sassanid dynasty .
232 Annexation of Armenia
241 The conquest of Syria by Shapur I
260 War between Persia and Rome
376 Persia and Rome make peace
524 War with Byzantium
614 The conquest of Damascus
617 The conquest of Chalsedon
632 The accession of Yazdgerd III , the last Sassanid King
636 The battle of Qadisya , the Arab invasion of Persia
637 Arabs captured Tisfun
642 Battle of Nahavand
820 The decline of Arab Caliph’s rule , Tahirid dynasty founded
827 Yaqub Laith founded the Saffarid dynasty
903 Rise of Samanid dynasty
999 The ghaznavid dynasty was founded
1037 The rise of the Seljuks
1079 Hassan Sabbah founded the hashashin ( Assasins ) Alamut
1152 End of seljuks rule in Persia
1220 The Invasion of Persia by Mongols
1227 Death of jengiz khan
1258 Mongols sacked Baghdad , end of abbasid Caliphate
1393 The rise of Tamerlane (Timur)
1500 The overthrow of Timur
1502 Ismaeel I founded the Safavid dynasty
1514 The battle of chaldiran
1587 The accession of Shah Abbas I
1622 The portuguese expelled from hormuz
1722 Peter the great’s troops occupied Derbent
1724 Afghan captured Shiraz
1728 Nader Shah rose to throne and captured Mashhad
1729 Afgan defeated , Isfahan reclaimed
1735 nader reclaimed Baku
1738 Nader shah invaded India
1740 Nader conquered Bukhara and Khiva
1747 Nader shah assassinated
1750 Karim khan zand occupied southern Persia
1796 Coronation of Agha Mohammad khan Qajar
1812 Treaty of Gollistan , Persia ceded territories to Russia
1828 Treaty of Turkamanchai signed with Russia
1865 Russia captured Tashkand
1906 Promulgation of Persian constitution
1907 Overthrow of constitution
1924 End of Qajar dynasty and beginning of Pahlavi dynast